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 The Arab Countries

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تاريخ التسجيل : 30/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: The Arab Countries   31/5/2008, 2:17 pm

يا جماعة ده بحث عن الدول العربية انا هانزل البحث على اكتر من موضوع علشان محدش يزهق من طول الموضوع بس مش هانزلهم كلهم انهارده يمكن كل يوم انزل موضوع او اتنين وهابدا بالمقدمة



The
Arab homeland stretches some 5,000 miles— nearly twice the distance between New York and San Francisco—from
the Atlantic coast of northern Africa in the west to the Arabian Sea in the
east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Central
Africa in the south. It covers an area of 5.25 million square
miles. By comparison, the United
States comprises 3.6 million square miles.
With seventy-two percent of its territory in Africa and
twenty-eight percent in Asia, the Arab world
straddles two continents, a position that has made it one of the world's most
strategic regions. Long coastlines give it access to vital waterways: the
Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Arabian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the
Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.
While the region is dominated by dry climatic conditions, the
existence of mountain ranges permits seasonal rainfall. The Atlas range in
northwest Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia)
forms a barrier between the Sahara
Desert and the coastal
areas. Other important mountain systems are the Lebanon
and Anti-Lebanon ranges and the Zagros Mountains to the east of Iraq.
Given the preponderance of arid conditions, reliable sources of water are
immensely important; be they springs, from which oases are formed, or rivers.
Foremost among the river valleys are the Nile
and the Tigris-Euphrates.
The population of the Arab nation—approximately 253 million as of
1994—is a youthful one. Almost half of the population is under fifteen years of
age. Given the current annual rate of increase, the population will be
approximately 280 million by the year 2000.
The concept of average population density has little meaning when applied to
the Arab world. Since significant human settlement is found only where water
supplies are adequate, the overwhelming majority of Arabs live in relatively
high concentrations along coastal areas and major river valleys. The most
striking example of this phenomenon is in Egypt where more than ninety
percent of the population lives on less than five percent of the land.
Agriculture is the primary economic activity in the Arab homeland.
The most important food crops are wheat, barley, rice, maize, dates and millet.
These are largely consumed within the region, while cotton, sugarcane, sugar
beets and sesame are exported as cash crops.



Contrary to popular belief, relatively few Arab countries possess petroleum and
natural gas resources. Other natural resources include iron-ore, lead,
phosphate, cobalt and manganese.
It was in the Arab land that man first organized into a settled form of
society, cultivating grain and raising livestock, establishing cities and promoting
diverse skills and occupations. In such a setting, rich and complex cultures
were nourished: ancient Egypt,
Sumer, Assyria, Babylonia
and Phoenicia
were great civilizations, legends even in their own day, whose traces continue
to be uncovered in archeological sites throughout the region.
It was in this same area that the three great monotheistic
religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam—originated, in time spreading to all
corners of the world. The followers of those faiths lived in harmony throughout
the centuries in the Arab homeland, since all considered themselves the people
of one God.
The Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him appeared in the
seventh century A.D. with the message of Islam. His Arab followers soon spread
the new faith in the West, across North Africa into Spain
and France, and in the East,
to the borders of China.
These Muslim believers rapidly founded a new and dynamic civilization that for
centuries was the only bright light in an otherwise culturally and
intellectually stagnant world. Indeed, while Europe
was experiencing its "Dark Ages," the Arab/Islamic civilization was
at its apogee. It was this same Islamic civilization, with its many
contributions to science and the humanities, that paved the way for the rise of
the West to its present prominence.
The Arab homeland today is a rich composite of many diverse
influences. Various ethnic, linguistic and religious groups inhabit the region.
Yet, Islam and the Arabic language constitute its two predominant cultural
features. The Arab people, spread over a vast area, enjoy common bonds of
history and tradition. Members of twenty-one different countries, the Arabs
consider themselves to be one nation.
The Arab people are further united through their membership and
participation in the League of Arab States. One of the oldest regional
organizations in the world, the Arab League was founded on March 22, 1945, even before the
formal establishment of the United Nations. The primary objective of the Arab
League, as it is commonly called, is to facilitate maximum integration among
the Arab countries through coordination of their activities in the political
sphere as well as in the fields of economics, social services, education,
communications, development, technology and industrialization.
The headquarters of the Arab League are in Cairo, Egypt,
which also hosts some of the League's specialized agencies. Additional agencies
are based in the capitals of other Arab countries. The twenty-two member states
of the League, in alphabetical order, are: Algeria,
Bahrain, Comoro
Islands, Djibouti,
Egypt, Iraq, Jordan,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
Palestine, Qatar,
Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan,
Syria, Tunisia, United
Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
The Arab nation in the twentieth century is a region in transition— developing,
modernizing, and building the foundation for its own renaissance. Its great and
ancient cities—Cairo, Damascus
and Baghdad—
with populations well into the millions, are rapidly expanding their municipal
services, communications systems and other facilities. New construction is
evident everywhere as high-rise buildings replace the covered bazaars of former
times.
Those Arab countries with natural resources, especially petroleum,
are devoting large funds to development programs in nearly every field while at
the same time providing their less fortunate sister states with financial
assistance to help them modernize. Scores of thousands of young Arabs are
studying in old and new universities in their own countries and abroad,
particularly in the United
States where there are an estimated 60,000
Arab students. They are specializing in professions and disciplines that will
enhance the progress of their homeland.
In spite of all of this development and modernization, the Arab
nation is also dedicated to preserving its traditions and values which are
largely rooted in Islam. Its people are reaching out for progress while
endeavoring to avoid the confusion that so often accompanies rapid change.
While the great urban centers of the Arab nation are reaping the
benefits of the space age, including satellite communications with other parts
of the world, many retain the flavor of the past through their architecture,
arts and traditions. In sum, the Arabs today are still drawing cultural
sustenance from their great past, while fueling their advance into the future.
This present collection is intended to offer the reader a glimpse
of some of the major contributions made by the Arabs to world civilization. Its
purpose is normely to acknowledge a great cultural debt, but also to stimulate
interest in a region and its people based on mutual respect and understanding.
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تاريخ التسجيل : 29/05/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Arab Countries   31/5/2008, 2:56 pm

جامد يامان بس متنساش ان الموضوع بالانجليزى يعنى اتجاه الكلام افضل يكون فى النص او فى الشمال

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Arab Countries   31/5/2008, 5:11 pm

اللهم اصلح حال العرب جميعا
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Arab Countries   31/5/2008, 5:42 pm

u r rigth bebo sorry
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Arab Countries   3/6/2008, 1:25 pm

thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Arab Countries   3/6/2008, 1:26 pm

و جزاك الله خيرا
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Arab Countries   3/6/2008, 1:28 pm

الموضوع جميل بس المفروض تبدا كتابه من الشمال
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The Arab Countries
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